root Sedine monitor

Brain Function Monitoring

A More Complete Picture Starts with More Complete Data


Brain function monitoring provides real-time insight into a patient's depth of anesthesia. To facilitate timely assessment of patient status, Root® with SedLine® provides the Patient State Index (PSi), a processed EEG parameter that provides information about a patients response to anesthesia.

ICU Sedation


Accurately assessing level of sedation in ICU patients has been a challenge. The effectiveness of using physiologic measures such as vital signs or response to stimulation can be compromised by the presence of other drugs. Monitoring sedation through the use of sedation assessment scales is limited to single-point measures in time. Further, the accuracy of sedation assessment scales may be compromised by subjectivity and inter-rater variability.

Practice guidelines suggest that objective measures of brain function (e.g., auditory evoked potentials [AEPs], Bispectral Index [BIS], Narcotrend Index [NI], Patient State Index [PSi], or state entropy [SE]) be used as an adjunct to subjective sedation assessments in adult ICU patients who are receiving neuromuscular blocking agents, as subjective sedation assessments may be unobtainable in these patients (+2B).2

Researchers have recommended that EEG monitoring be used to monitor nonconvulsive seizure activity in adult ICU patients with either known or suspected seizures, or to titrate electrosuppressive medication to achieve burst suppression in adult ICU patients with elevated intracranial pressure (+1A).3

Correlation Between PSi and Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS)

A strong correlation between the PSi values and the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) as demonstrated in a study2 identifies the opportunity to effectively manage sedation and analgesia in an objective, consistent manner across the continuum of care, especially in intubated, ventilated ICU patients. Further, changes in the PSi in response to clinical events may provide an early warning for patient safety as highlighted in a recent review of sedation measures in the ICU4.

By continually monitoring a patient's level of sedation, this may help add value to patient care by contributing to:

  • Improved patient safety
  • Optimized medication levels
  • Reduced ventilator days
  • Reduced cost

“A total of 349 RSS assessments were made during the course of the study. The mean PSi score (± 95% CI) for each of the RSS values was plotted (Figure 1). The correlation coefficient equals -0.98 indicating a strong relationship between the PSi and all levels of RSS5.”

Masimo - Chart Image
"We need much better monitors of the brain and to use these monitors of the brain. I think this is the advantage that SedLine brings to you is that it doesn't just look at one little area of the brain. It looks at both sides of the brain."

Michael Ramsay, MD
Chairman, Dept. of Anesthesiology
Baylor University Medical Center
Dallas, TX

Ventilated ICU patients

It is a challenge to properly sedate ventilated patients in the ICU. As a result, most patients are over-sedated, meaning they spend more time than necessary on the ventilator, prolonging their stay in the ICU, exacerbating the risk of complications and increasing the cost of their care. The goal is to more tightly control sedation, thereby minimizing negative clinical and financial outcomes.

"As this technology gets better, as we have with the SedLine - easy to apply, fewer artifacts - this now becomes a functional tool to correctly control our sedation levels and reduce costs in our ICU, reduce morbidity in our ICUs and reduce stay in our ICUs."

Michael Ramsay, MD,
Chairman, Department of Anesthesiology
Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX


  1. 1 Prichep LS, Gugino LD, John ER, et al. The Patient State Index as an indicator of the level of hypnosis under general anesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 2004,92:393-399. Available online at
  2. 2,3 Clinical Practice Guidelines in adult patients in Intensive Care Unit Am J Health-Syst Pharm—Vol 70 Jan 1, 2013
  3. 4 Sessler CN, Grap MJ and Ramsay AE. Evaluating and monitoring analgesia and sedation in the intensive care unit. Critical Care 2008, 12(Suppl3):S2. Available online at
  4. 5 The Patient State Index Correlates Well with the Ramsay Sedation Score in ICU Patients. Ramsay M.A., Huddleston P., Hamman B. Tai S., Greg M. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: A338.



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